All ends are ultimately mental states. An end is the mental state created after performing an action. This is reality. It is what really happened in contrast to what one wanted to happen (desire).
These mental states are hard to categorize against other mental states because at every given moment, we feel different things.
But the thing is, one knows when one is happy and in a state of content. For logistical purposes, one can use a single word to signify that which can’t be captured. For me, I’ll settle with Ginhawa.
This is the ultimate end. The one true goal of my life.
Now, because it’s difficult to use it practically, I’ll use the INSTRUMENTS that lead to the ultimate end as my guiding ends at themselves.
Actually, they are ends at themselves, just not ultimate.
What I’m saying here then is that in the day-to-day, use Ginhawa as a compass towards living, but use the INSTRUMENTS as checks to tell you whether or not you are going there.
Now, remember this: INSTRUMENTS are just assumptions of the things we need to do or achieve to feel Ginhawa at every given moment. They are intelligent assumptions though. But we shouldn’t be surprised if, despite using all the instruments, we are still not feeling what we want to feel.
Our mental states are subject to a lot of factors and some of these factors are beyond our control. To even think about controlling everything is ludicrous. This is life. This is part of being human. To be surprised.
Of course, the INSTRUMENTS are credible and they give us a good chance of really feeling what we want to feel.